Skip Ribbon Commands
Skip to main content
Stay Connected: Twitter Facebook Flickr RSS E-Mail

Click Plus Sign Icon to expand menu items
Click Minus Sign Icon to collapse menu items

AT Section 401

Reporting on Pro Forma Financial Information

Source: SSAE No. 10.
Effective when the presentation of pro forma financial information is as of or for a period ending on or after June 1, 2001. Earlier application is permitted.

Introduction

.01

This section provides guidance to a practitioner who is engaged to issue or does issue an examination or a review report on pro forma financial information. Such an engagement should comply with the general and fieldwork standards set forth in section 101, Attest Engagements, and the specific performance and reporting standards set forth in this section. fn 1

.02

When pro forma financial information is presented outside the basic financial statements but within the same document, and the practitioner is not engaged to report on the pro forma financial information, the practitioner's responsibilities are described in AU section 550, Other Information in Documents Containing Audited Financial Statements, and AU section 711, Filings Under Federal Securities Statutes.

.03

This section does not apply in those circumstances when, for purposes of a more meaningful presentation, a transaction consummated after the balance-sheet date is reflected in the historical financial statements (such as a revision of debt maturities or a revision of earnings per share calculations for a stock split). fn 2

Presentation of Pro Forma Financial Information

.04

The objective of pro forma financial information is to show what the significant effects on historical financial information might have been had a consummated or proposed transaction (or event) occurred at an earlier date. Pro forma financial information is commonly used to show the effects of transactions such as the following:

  • Business combination
  • Change in capitalization
  • Disposition of a significant portion of the business
  • Change in the form of business organization or status as an autonomous entity
  • Proposed sale of securities and the application of the proceeds

.05

This objective is achieved primarily by applying pro forma adjustments to historical financial information. Pro forma adjustments should be based on management's assumptions and give effect to all significant effects directly attributable to the transaction (or event).

.06

Pro forma financial information should be labeled as such to distinguish it from historical financial information. This presentation should describe the transaction (or event) that is reflected in the pro forma financial information, the source of the historical financial information on which it is based, the significant assumptions used in developing the pro forma adjustments, and any significant uncertainties about those assumptions. The presentation also should indicate that the pro forma financial information should be read in conjunction with related historical financial information and that the pro forma financial information is not necessarily indicative of the results (such as financial position and results of operations, as applicable) that would have been attained had the transaction (or event) actually taken place earlier. fn 3

Conditions for Reporting

.07

The practitioner may agree to report on an examination or a review of pro forma financial information if the following conditions are met.

  1. The document that contains the pro forma financial information includes (or incorporates by reference) complete historical financial statements of the entity for the most recent year (or for the preceding year if financial statements for the most recent year are not yet available) and, if pro forma financial information is presented for an interim period, the document also includes (or incorporates by reference) historical interim financial information for that period (which may be presented in condensed form). fn 4 In the case of a business combination, the document should include (or incorporate by reference) the appropriate historical financial information for the significant constituent parts of the combined entity.
  2. The historical financial statements of the entity (or, in the case of a business combination, of each significant constituent part of the combined entity) on which the pro forma financial information is based have been audited or reviewed. fn 5 The practitioner's attestation risk relating to the pro forma financial information is affected by the scope of the engagement providing the practitioner with assurance about the underlying historical financial information to which the pro forma adjustments are applied. Therefore, the level of assurance given by the practitioner on the pro forma financial information, as of a particular date or for a particular period, should be limited to the level of assurance provided on the historical financial statements (or, in the case of a business combination, the lowest level of assurance provided on the underlying historical financial statements of any significant constituent part of the combined entity). For example, if the underlying historical financial statements of each constituent part of the combined entity have been audited at year-end and reviewed at an interim date, the practitioner may perform an examination or a review of the pro forma financial information at year-end but is limited to performing a review of the pro forma financial information at the interim date.
  3. The practitioner who is reporting on the pro forma financial information should have an appropriate level of knowledge of the accounting and financial reporting practices of each significant constituent part of the combined entity. This would ordinarily have been obtained by the practitioner auditing or reviewing historical financial statements of each entity for the most recent annual or interim period for which the pro forma financial information is presented. If another practitioner has performed such an audit or a review, the need, by a practitioner reporting on the pro forma financial information, for an understanding of the entity's accounting and financial reporting practices is not diminished, and that practitioner should consider whether, under the particular circumstances, he or she can acquire sufficient knowledge of these matters to perform the procedures necessary to report on the pro forma financial information.

Practitioner's Objective

.08

The objective of the practitioner's examination procedures applied to pro forma financial information is to provide reasonable assurance as to whether—

  • Management's assumptions provide a reasonable basis for presenting the significant effects directly attributable to the underlying transaction (or event).
  • The related pro forma adjustments give appropriate effect to those assumptions.
  • The pro forma column reflects the proper application of those adjustments to the historical financial statements.

.09

The objective of the practitioner's review procedures applied to pro forma financial information is to provide negative assurance as to whether any information came to the practitioner's attention to cause him or her to believe that—

  • Management's assumptions do not provide a reasonable basis for presenting the significant effects directly attributable to the underlying transaction (or event).
  • The related pro forma adjustments do not give appropriate effect to those assumptions.
  • The pro forma column does not reflect the proper application of those adjustments to the historical financial statements.

Procedures

.10

Other than the procedures applied to the historical financial statements, fn 6 the procedures the practitioner should apply to the assumptions and pro forma adjustments for either an examination or a review engagement are as follows.

  1. Obtain an understanding of the underlying transaction (or event), for example, by reading relevant contracts and minutes of meetings of the board of directors and by making inquiries of appropriate officials of the entity, and, in cases, of the entity acquired or to be acquired.
  2. Obtain a level of knowledge of each constituent part of the combined entity in a business combination that will enable the practitioner to perform the required procedures. Procedures to obtain this knowledge may include communicating with other practitioners who have audited or reviewed the historical financial information on which the pro forma financial information is based. Matters that may be considered include accounting principles and financial reporting pracices followed, transactions between the entities, and material contingencies.
  3. Discuss with management their assumptions regarding the effects of the transaction (or event).
  4. Evaluate whether pro forma adjustments are included for all significant effects directly attributable to the transaction (or event).
  5. Obtain sufficient evidence in support of such adjustments. The evidence required to support the level of assurance given is a matter of professional judgment. The practitioner typically would obtain more evidence in an examination engagement than in a review engagement. Examples of evidence that the practitioner might consider obtaining are purchase, merger or exchange agreements, appraisal reports, debt agreements, employment agreements, actions of the board of directors, and existing or proposed legislation or regulatory actions.
  6. Evaluate whether management's assumptions that underlie the pro forma adjustments are presented in a sufficiently clear and comprehensive manner. Also, evaluate whether the pro forma adjustments are consistent with each other and with the data used to develop them.
  7. Determine that computations of pro forma adjustments are mathematically correct and that the pro forma column reflects the proper application of those adjustments to the historical financial statements.
  8. Obtain written representations from management concerning their—
    • Responsibility for the assumptions used in determining the pro forma adjustments
    • Assertion that the assumptions provide a reasonable basis for presenting all of the significant effects directly attributable to the transaction (or event), that the related pro forma adjustments give appropriate effect to those assumptions, and that the pro forma column reflects the proper application of those adjustments to the historical financial statements
    • Assertion that the significant effects directly attributable to the transaction (or event) are appropriately disclosed in the pro forma financial information
  9. Read the pro forma financial information and evaluate whether—
    • The underlying transaction (or event), the pro forma adjustments, the significant assumptions and the significant uncertainties, if any, about those assumptions have been appropriately described.
    • The source of the historical financial information on which the pro forma financial information is based has been appropriately identified.

Reporting on Pro Forma Financial Information

.11

The practitioner's report on pro forma financial information should be dated as of the completion of the appropriate procedures. The practitioner's report on pro forma financial information may be added to the practitioner's report on historical financial information, or it may appear separately. If the reports are combined and the date of completion of the procedures for the examination or review of the pro forma financial information is after the date of completion of the fieldwork for the audit or review of the historical financial information, the combined report should be dual-dated. (For example, "February 15, 20X2, except for the paragraphs regarding pro forma financial information as to which the date is March 20, 20X2.")

.12

A practitioner's examination report on pro forma financial information should include the following:

  1. A title that includes the word independent
  2. An identification of the pro forma financial information
  3. A reference to the financial statements from which the historical financial information is derived and a statement that such financial statements were audited (The report on pro forma financial information should refer to any modification in the practitioner's report on the historical financial information.)
  4. An identification of the responsible party and a statement that the responsible party is responsible for the pro forma financial information
  5. A statement that the practitioner's responsibility is to express an opinion on the pro forma financial information based on his or her examination
  6. A statement that the examination of the pro forma financial information was conducted in accordance with attestation standards established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and, accordingly, included such procedures as the practitioner considered necessary in the circumstances
  7. A statement that the practitioner believes that the examination provides a reasonable basis for his or her opinion
  8. A separate paragraph explaining the objective of pro forma financial information and its limitations
  9. The practitioner's opinion as to whether management's assumptions provide a reasonable basis for presenting the significant effects directly attributable to the transaction (or event), whether the related pro forma adjustments give appropriate effect to those assumptions, and whether the pro forma column reflects the proper application of those adjustments to the historical financial statements (see paragraphs .18 and .20)
  10. The manual or printed signature of the practitioner's firm
  11. The date of the examination report

.13

A practitioner's review report on pro forma financial information should include the following:

  1. A title that includes the word independent
  2. An identification of the pro forma financial information
  3. A reference to the financial statements from which the historical financial information is derived and a statement as to whether such financial statements were audited or reviewed (The report on pro forma financial information should refer to any modification in the practitioner's report on the historical financial information.)
  4. An identification of the responsible party and a statement that the responsible party is responsible for the pro forma financial information
  5. A statement that the review of the pro forma financial information was conducted in accordance with attestation standards established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants
  6. A statement that a review is substantially less in scope than an examination, the objective of which is the expression of an opinion on the pro forma financial information and, accordingly, the practitioner does not express such an opinion
  7. A separate paragraph explaining the objective of pro forma financial information and its limitations
  8. The practitioner's conclusion as to whether any information came to the practitioner's attention to cause him or her to believe that management's assumptions do not provide a reasonable basis for presenting the significant effects directly attributable to the transaction (or event), or that the related pro forma adjustments do not give appropriate effect to those assumptions, or that the pro forma column does not reflect the proper application of those adjustments to the historical financial statements (See paragraphs .19 and .20.)
  9. The manual or printed signature of the practitioner's firm
  10. The date of the review report

.14

Nothing precludes the practitioner from restricting the use of the report (see section 101.78–.83).

.15

Because a pooling-of-interests business combination is accounted for by combining historical amounts retroactively, pro forma adjustments for a proposed transaction generally affect only the equity section of the pro forma condensed balance sheet. Further, because of the requirements of the Accounting Principles Board Opinion (APB) No. 16, Business Combinations [AC Section B50], a business combination effected as a pooling of interests would not ordinarily involve a choice of assumptions by management. Accordingly, a report on a proposed pooling transaction need not address management's assumptions unless the pro forma financial information includes adjustments to conform the accounting principles of the combining entities. (See paragraph .21.)

.16

Restrictions on the scope of the engagement (see section 101.73–.75), reservations about the propriety of the assumptions and the conformity of the presentation with those assumptions (including adequate disclosure of significant matters), or other reservations may require the practitioner to qualify the opinion, disclaim an opinion, or withdraw from the engagement. fn 7 The practitioner should disclose all substantive reasons for any report modifications. Uncertainty as to whether the transaction (or event) will be consummated would not ordinarily require a report modification. (See paragraph .22.)

Effective Date

.17

This section is effective when the presentation of pro forma financial information is as of or for a period ending on or after June 1, 2001. Early application is permitted.

Appendix A

Report on Examination of Pro Forma Financial Information

.18

Independent Accountant's Report

We have examined the pro forma adjustments reflecting the transaction [or event] described in Note 1 and the application of those adjustments to the historical amounts in [the assembly of] fn 8 the accompanying pro forma financial condensed balance sheet of X Company as of December 31, 20X1, and the pro forma condensed statement of income for the year then ended. The historical condensed financial statements are derived from the historical financial statements of X Company, which were audited by us, and of Y Company, which were audited by other accountants, fn 9 appearing elsewhere herein [or incorporated by reference]. fn 10 Such pro forma adjustments are based upon management's assumptions described in Note 2. X Company's management is responsible for the pro forma financial information. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the pro forma financial information based on our examination.

Our examination was conducted in accordance with attestation standards established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and, accordingly, included such procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our examination provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

The objective of this pro forma financial information is to show what the significant effects on the historical financial information might have been had the transaction [or event] occurred at an earlier date. However, the pro forma condensed financial statements are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations or related effects on financial position that would have been attained had the above-mentioned transaction [or event] actually occurred earlier.

[Additional paragraph(s) may be added to emphasize certain matters relating to the attest engagement or the subject matter.]

In our opinion, management's assumptions provide a reasonable basis for presenting the significant effects directly attributable to the above-mentioned transaction [or event] described in Note 1, the related pro forma adjustments give appropriate effect to those assumptions, and the pro forma column reflects the proper application of those adjustments to the historical financial statement amounts in the pro forma condensed balance sheet as of December 31, 20X1, and the pro forma condensed statement of income for the year then ended.

[Signature]

[Date]

Appendix B

Report on Review of Pro Forma Financial Information

.19

Independent Accountant's Report

We have reviewed the pro forma adjustments reflecting the transaction [or event] described in Note 1 and the application of those adjustments to the historical amounts in [the assembly of] fn 11 the accompanying pro forma condensed balance sheet of X Company as of March 31, 20X2, and the pro forma condensed statement of income for the three months then ended. These historical condensed financial statements are derived from the historical unaudited financial statements of X Company, which were reviewed by us, and of Y Company, which were reviewed by other accountants, fn 12fn 13 appearing elsewhere herein [or incorporated by reference]. fn 14 Such pro forma adjustments are based on management's assumptions as described in Note 2. X Company's management is responsible for the pro forma financial information.

Our review was conducted in accordance with attestation standards established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. A review is substantially less in scope than an examination, the objective of which is the expression of an opinion on management's assumptions, the pro forma adjustments and the application of those adjustments to historical financial information. Accordingly, we do not express such an opinion.

The objective of this pro forma financial information is to show what the significant effects on the historical financial information might have been had the transaction [or event] occurred at an earlier date. However, the pro forma condensed financial statements are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations or related effects on financial position that would have been attained had the above-mentioned transaction [or event] actually occurred earlier.

[Additional paragraph(s) may be added to emphasize certain matters relating to the attest engagement or the subject matter.]

Based on our review, nothing came to our attention that caused us to believe that management's assumptions do not provide a reasonable basis for presenting the significant effects directly attributable to the above-mentioned transaction [or event] described in Note 1, that the related pro forma adjustments do not give appropriate effect to those assumptions, or that the pro forma column does not reflect the proper application of those adjustments to the historical financial statement amounts in the pro forma condensed balance sheet as of March 31, 20X2, and the pro forma condensed statement of income for the three months then ended.

[Signature]

[Date]

Appendix C

Report on Examination of Pro Forma Financial Information at Year-End With a Review of Pro forma Financial Information for a Subsequent Interim Date

.20

Independent Accountant's Report

We have examined the pro forma adjustments reflecting the transaction [or event] described in Note 1 and the application of those adjustments to the historical amounts in [the assembly of] fn 15 the accompanying pro forma financial condensed balance sheet of X Company as of December 31, 20X1, and the pro forma condensed statement of income for the year then ended. The historical condensed financial statements are derived from the historical financial statements of X Company, which were audited by us, and of Y Company, which were audited by other accountants, fn 16 appearing elsewhere herein [or incorporated by reference]. fn 17 Such pro forma adjustments are based upon management's assumptions described in Note 2. X Company's management is responsible for the pro forma financial information. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the pro forma financial information based on our examination.

Our examination was conducted in accordance with attestation standards established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and, accordingly, included such procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our examination provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

In addition, we have reviewed the pro forma adjustments and the application of those adjustments to the historical amounts in [the assembly of] fn 15 the accompanying pro forma condensed balance sheet of X Company as of March 31, 20X2, and the pro forma condensed statement of income for the three months then ended. The historical condensed financial statements are derived from the historical financial statements of X Company, which were reviewed by us, and of Y Company, which were reviewed by other accountants, fn 18 appearing elsewhere herein [or incorporated by reference]. fn 19 Such pro forma adjustments are based upon management's assumptions as described in Note 2. Our review was conducted in accordance with attestation standards established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. A review is substantially less in scope than an examination, the objective of which is the expression of an opinion on management's assumptions, the pro forma adjustments, and the application of those adjustments to historical financial information. Accordingly, we do not express such an opinion on the pro forma adjustments or the application of such adjustments to the pro forma condensed balance sheet as of March 31, 20X2, and the pro forma condensed statement of income for the three months then ended.

The objective of this pro forma financial information is to show what the significant effects on the historical financial information might have been had the transactions [or event] occurred at an earlier date. However, the pro forma condensed financial statements are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations or related effects on financial position that would have been attained had the above-mentioned transaction [or event] actually occurred earlier.

[Additional paragraph(s) may be added to emphasize certain matters relating to the attest engagements or the subject matter.]

In our opinion, management's assumptions provide a reasonable basis for presenting the significant effects directly attributable to the above-mentioned transaction [or event] described in Note 1, the related pro forma adjustments give appropriate effect to those assumptions, and the pro forma column reflects the proper application of those adjustments to the historical financial statement amounts in the pro forma condensed balance sheet as of December 31, 20X1, and the pro forma condensed statement of income for the year then ended.

Based on our review, nothing came to our attention that caused us to believe that management's assumptions do not provide a reasonable basis for presenting the significant effects directly attributable to the above-mentioned transaction [or event] described in Note 1, that the related pro forma adjustments do not give appropriate effect to those assumptions, or that the pro forma column does not reflect the proper application of those adjustments to the historical financial statement amounts in the pro forma condensed balance sheet as of March 31, 20X2, and the pro forma condensed statement of income for the three months then ended.

[Signature]

[Date]

Appendix D

Report on Examination of Pro Forma Financial Information Giving Effect to a Business Combination to Be Accounted for as a Pooling of Interests fn 20

.21

Independent Accountant's Report

We have examined the pro forma adjustments reflecting the proposed business combination to be accounted for as a pooling of interests described in Note 1 and the application of those adjustments to the historical amounts in the accompanying pro forma condensed balance sheet of X Company as of December 31, 20X1, and the pro forma condensed statements of income for each of three years in the period then ended. These historical condensed financial statements are derived from the historical financial statements of X Company, which were audited by us, fn 21 and of Y Company, which were audited by other accountants, appearing elsewhere herein [or incorporated by reference]. fn 22 Such pro forma adjustments are based upon management's assumptions described in Note 2. X Company's management is responsible for the pro forma financial information. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the pro forma financial information based on our examination.

Our examination was conducted in accordance with attestation standards established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and, accordingly, included such procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our examination provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

The objective of this pro forma financial information is to show what the significant effects on the historical financial information might have been had the transactions [or event] occurred at an earlier date.

[Additional paragraph(s) may be added to emphasize certain matters relating to the attest engagement or the subject matter.]

In our opinion, the accompanying condensed pro forma financial statements of X Company as of December 31, 20X1, and for each of the three years in the period then ended give appropriate effect to the pro forma adjustments necessary to reflect the proposed business combination on a pooling of interests basis as described in Note 1 and the pro forma column reflects the proper application of those adjustments to the historical financial statements.

[Signature]

[Date]

Appendix E

Other Example Reports

.22

An example of a report qualified because of a scope limitation follows.

Independent Accountant's Report

We have examined the pro forma adjustments reflecting the transaction [or event] described in Note 1 and the application of those adjustments to the historical amounts in [the assembly of] fn 23 the accompanying pro forma condensed balance sheet of X Company as of December 31, 20X1, and the pro forma condensed statement of income for the year then ended. The historical condensed financial statements are derived from the historical financial statements of X Company, which were audited by us, and of Y Company, which were audited by other accountants, fn 24 appearing elsewhere herein [or incorporated by reference]. fn 25 Such pro forma adjustments are based upon management's assumptions described in Note 2. X Company's management is responsible for the pro forma financial information. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the pro forma financial information based on our examination.

Except as described below, our examination was conducted in accordance with attestation standards established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and, accordingly, included such procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our examination provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

We are unable to perform the examination procedures we considered necessary with respect to assumptions relating to the proposed loan described in Adjustment E in Note 2.

[Same paragraph as third paragraph in examination report in paragraph .18]

In our opinion, except for the effects of such changes, if any, as might have been determined to be necessary had we been able to satisfy ourselves as to the assumptions relating to the proposed loan, management's assumptions provide a reasonable basis for presenting the significant effects directly attributable to the above-mentioned transaction [or event] described in Note 1, the related pro forma adjustments give appropriate effect to those assumptions, and the pro forma column reflects the proper application of those adjustments to the historical financial statement amounts in the pro forma condensed balance sheet as of December 31, 20X1, and the pro forma condensed statement of income for the year then ended.

[Signature]

[Date]

An example of a report qualified for reservations about the propriety of assumptions on an acquisition transaction follows:

[Same first three paragraphs as examination report in paragraph .18]

As discussed in Note 2 to the pro forma financial statements, the pro forma adjustments reflect management's assumption that X Division of the acquired company will be sold. The net assets of this division are reflected at their historical carrying amount; generally accepted accounting principles require these net assets to be recorded at estimated net realizable value.

In our opinion, except for inappropriate valuation of the net assets of X Division, management's assumptions described in Note 2 provide a reasonable basis for presenting the significant effects directly attributable to the above-mentioned transaction [or event] described in Note 1, the related pro forma adjustments give appropriate effect to those assumptions, and the pro forma column reflects the proper application of those adjustments to the historical financial statement amounts in the pro forma condensed balance sheet as of December 31, 20X1, and the pro forma condensed statement of income for the year then ended.

[Signature]

[Date]

An example of a disclaimer of opinion because of a scope limitation follows:

Independent Accountant's Report

We were engaged to examine the pro forma adjustments reflecting the transaction [or event] described in Note 1 and the application of those adjustments to the historical amounts in [the assembly of] fn 26 the accompanying pro forma financial condensed balance sheet of X Company as of December 31, 20X1, and the pro forma condensed statement of income for the year then ended. The historical condensed financial statements are derived from the historical financial statements of X Company, which were audited by us, and of Y Company, which were audited by other accountants, fn 27 appearing elsewhere herein [or incorporated by reference]. fn 28 Such pro forma adjustments are based upon management's assumptions described in Note 2. X Company's management is responsible for the pro forma financial information.

As discussed in Note 2 to the pro forma financial statements, the pro forma adjustments reflect management's assumptions that the elimination of duplicate facilities would have resulted in a 30 percent reduction in operating costs. Management could not supply us with sufficient evidence to support this assertion.

[Same paragraph as third paragraph in examination report in paragraph .18]

Since we were unable to evaluate management's assumptions regarding the reduction in operating costs and other assumptions related thereto, the scope of our work was not sufficient to express and, therefore, we do not express an opinion on the pro forma adjustments, management's underlying assumptions regarding those adjustments and the application of those adjustments to the historical financial statement amounts in the pro forma condensed financial statement amounts in the pro forma condensed balance sheet as of December 31, 20X1, and the pro forma condensed statement of income for the year then ended.

[Signature]

[Date]

Footnotes (AT Section 401 — Reporting on Pro Forma Financial Information ):

fn 1 AU section 634, Letters for Underwriters and Certain Other Requesting Parties, paragraphs .03 through .05, identify certain parties who may request a letter. When one of those parties requests a letter or asks the practitioner to perform agreed-upon procedures on pro forma financial information in connection with an offering, the practitioner should follow the guidance in AU section 634.03, .10, .36, .42, and .43.

fn 2 In certain circumstances, generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) may require the presentation of pro forma financial information in the financial statements or the accompanying notes. That information includes, for example, pro forma financial information required by Accounting Principles Board (APB) Opinion No. 16, Business Combinations (paragraphs 61, 65, and 96 [AC section B50.120, .124, and .165]); APB Opinion 20, Accounting Changes (paragraph 21 [AC section A06.117]); or, in some cases, pro forma financial information relating to subsequent events; see AU section 560, Subsequent Events, paragraph .05. For guidance in reporting on audited financial statements that include pro forma financial information for a business combination or subsequent event, see AU section 508, Reports on Audited Financial Statements, paragraph .28.

fn 3 For further guidance on the presentation of pro forma financial information included in filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), see Article 11 of Regulation S-X.

fn 4 For pro forma financial information included in an SEC Form 8-K, historical financial information previously included in an SEC filing would meet this requirement. Interim historical financial information may be presented as a column in the pro forma financial information.

fn 5 The practitioner's audit or review report should be included (or incorporated by reference) in the document containing the pro forma financial information. The review may be that as defined in AU section 722, Interim Financial Information, for SEC registrants or non-SEC registrants that make a filing with a regulatory agency in preparation for a public offering or listing, or as defined in Statement on Standards for Accounting and Review Services (SSARS) No. 1, Compilation and Review of Financial Statements [AR section 100], for nonpublic companies. [Footnote revised, November 2002, to reflect conforming changes necessary due to the issuance of Statement on Auditing Standards No. 100.]

fn 6 See paragraph .07b.

fn 7 See section 101.76 and .77.

fn 8 This wording is appropriate when one column of pro forma financial information is presented without separate columns of historical financial information and pro forma adjustments.

fn 9 If either accountant's report includes an explanatory paragraph or is other than unqualified, that fact should be referred to within this report.

fn 10 If the option in footnote 4 to paragraph .07a is followed, the report should be appropriately modified.

fn 11 This wording is appropriate when one column of pro forma financial information is presented without separate columns of historical financial information and pro forma adjustments.

fn 12 If either accountant's report includes an explanatory paragraph or is modified, that fact should be referred to within this report.

fn 13 Where one set of historical financial statements is audited and the other set is reviewed, wording similar to the following would be appropriate:

The historical condensed financial statements are derived from the historical financial statements of X Company, which were audited by us, and of Y Company, which were reviewed by other accountants, appearing elsewhere herein [or incorporated by reference].

fn 14 If the option in footnote 4 to paragraph .07a is followed, the report should be appropriately modified.

fn 15 This wording is appropriate when one column of pro forma financial information is presented without separate columns of historical financial information and pro forma adjustments.

fn 16 If either accountant's report includes an explanatory paragraph or is other than unqualified, that fact should be referred to within this report.

fn 17 If the option in footnote 4 to paragraph .07a is followed, the report should be appropriately modified.

fn 15 This wording is appropriate when one column of pro forma financial information is presented without separate columns of historical financial information and pro forma adjustments.

fn 18 Where one set of historical financial statements is audited and the other set is reviewed, wording similar to the following would be appropriate:

The historical condensed financial statements are derived from the historical financial statements of X Company, which were audited by us, and of Y Company, which were reviewed by other accountants, appearing elsewhere herein [or incorporated by reference].

fn 19 If the option in footnote 4 to paragraph .07a is followed, the report should be appropriately modified.

fn 20 See paragraph .15 for a discussion of the form of the opinion on pro forma financial information in a pooling of interests business combination.

fn 21 If either accountant's report includes an explanatory paragraph or is other than unqualified, that fact should be referred to within this report.

fn 22 If the option in footnote 4 to paragraph .07a is followed, the report should be appropriately modified.

fn 23 This wording is appropriate when one column of pro forma financial information is presented without separate columns of historical financial information and pro forma adjustments.

fn 24 If either accountant's report includes an explanatory paragraph or is other than unqualified, that fact should be referred to within this report.

fn 25 If the option in footnote 4 to paragraph .07a is followed, the report should be appropriately modified.

fn 26 This wording is appropriate when one column of pro forma financial information is presented without separate columns of historical financial information and pro forma adjustments.

fn 27 If either accountant’s report includes an explanatory paragraph or is other than unqualified, that fact should be referred to within this report.

fn 28 If the option in footnote 4 to paragraph .07a is followed, the report should be appropriately modified.

Copyright © 2001, 2002, 2004, American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, Inc.