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AU Section 334

Related Parties

[Superseded by PCAOB Auditing Standard No. 18, Related Parties, which is effective for audits of fiscal years beginning on or after December 15, 2014. See PCAOB Release No. 2014-002. Effective for audits of fiscal years beginning before December 15, 2014.]
(Supersedes Statement on Auditing Standards No. 6, AICPA,Professional Standards, vol. 1, AU sec. 335.01-.19) fn *
Source: SAS No. 45.
See section 9334 for interpretations of this section.
Effective for periods ended after September 30, 1983, unless otherwise indicated.

.01

This section provides guidance on procedures that should be considered by the auditor when he is performing an audit of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards to identify related party relationships and transactions and to satisfy himself concerning the required financial statement accounting and disclosure. fn 1 The procedures set forth in this section should not be considered all-inclusive. Also, not all of them may be required in every audit.

Accounting Considerations

.02

FASB Statement No. 57, Related Party Disclosures [AC section R36], gives the requirements for related party disclosures. Certain accounting pronouncements prescribe the accounting treatment when related parties are involved; however, established accounting principles ordinarily do not require transactions with related parties to be accounted for on a basis different from that which would be appropriate if the parties were not related. The auditor should view related party transactions within the framework of existing pronouncements, placing primary emphasis on the adequacy of disclosure. In addition, the auditor should be aware that the substance of a particular transaction could be significantly different from its form and that financial statements should recognize the substance of particular transactions rather than merely their legal form. fn 2

.03

Transactions that because of their nature may be indicative of the existence of related parties include fn 3

  1. Borrowing or lending on an interest-free basis or at a rate of interest significantly above or below market rates prevailing at the time of the transaction.
  2. Selling real estate at a price that differs significantly from its appraised value.
  3. Exchanging property for similar property in a nonmonetary transaction.
  4. Making loans with no scheduled terms for when or how the funds will be repaid.

Audit Procedures

.04

An audit performed in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards cannot be expected to provide assurance that all related party transactions will be discovered. Nevertheless, during the course of his audit, the auditor should be aware of the possible existence of material related party transactions that could affect the financial statements and of common ownership or management control relationships for which FASB Statement No. 57 [AC section R36] requires disclosure even though there are no transactions. Many of the procedures outlined in the following paragraphs are normally performed in an audit in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, even if the auditor has no reason to suspect that related party transactions or control relationships exist. Other audit procedures set forth in this section are specifically directed to related party transactions.

.05

In determining the scope of work to be performed with respect to possible transactions with related parties, the auditor should obtain an understanding of management responsibilities and the relationship of each component to the total entity. He should consider controls over management activities, and he should consider the business purpose served by the various components of the entity. Normally, the business structure and style of operating are based on the abilities of management, tax and legal considerations, product diversification, and geographical location. Experience has shown, however, that business structure and operating style are occasionally deliberately designed to obscure related party transactions.

.06

In the absence of evidence to the contrary, transactions with related parties should not be assumed to be outside the ordinary course of business. The auditor should, however, be aware of the possibility that transactions with related parties may have been motivated solely, or in large measure, by conditions similar to the following:

  1. Lack of sufficient working capital or credit to continue the business
  2. An urgent desire for a continued favorable earnings record in the hope of supporting the price of the company's stock
  3. An overly optimistic earnings forecast
  4. Dependence on a single or relatively few products, customers, or transactions for the continuing success of the venture
  5. A declining industry characterized by a large number of business failures
  6. Excess capacity
  7. Significant litigation, especially litigation between stockholders and management
  8. Significant obsolescence dangers because the company is in a high-technology industry

Determining the Existence of Related Parties

.07

The auditor should place emphasis on testing material transactions with parties he knows are related to the reporting entity. Certain relationships, such as parent-subsidiary or investor-investee, may be clearly evident. Determining the existence of others requires the application of specific audit procedures, which may include the following:

  1. Evaluate the company's procedures for identifying and properly accounting for related party transactions.
  2. Request from appropriate management personnel the names of all related parties and inquire whether there were any transactions with these parties during the period.
  3. Review filings by the reporting entity with the Securities and Exchange Commission and other regulatory agencies for the names of related parties and for other businesses in which officers and directors occupy directorship or management positions.
  4. Determine the names of all pension and other trusts established for the benefit of employees and the names of their officers and trustees. fn 4
  5. Review stockholder listings of closely held companies to identify principal stockholders.
  6. Review prior years' working papers for the names of known related parties.
  7. Inquire of predecessor, principal, or other auditors of related entities concerning their knowledge of existing relationships and the extent of management involvement in material transactions.
  8. Review material investment transactions during the period under audit to determine whether the nature and extent of investments during the period create related parties.

Identifying Transactions With Related Parties

.08

The following procedures are intended to provide guidance for identifying material transactions with parties known to be related and for identifying material transactions that may be indicative of the existence of previously undetermined relationships:

  1. Provide audit personnel performing segments of the audit or auditing and reporting separately on the accounts of related components of the reporting entity with the names of known related parties so that they may become aware of transactions with such parties during their audits.
  2. Review the minutes of meetings of the board of directors and executive or operating committees for information about material transactions authorized or discussed at their meetings.
  3. Review proxy and other material filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and comparable data filed with other regulatory agencies for information about material transactions with related parties.
  4. Review conflict-of-interests statements obtained by the company from its management. fn 5
  5. Review the extent and nature of business transacted with major customers, suppliers, borrowers, and lenders for indications of previously undisclosed relationships.
  6. Consider whether transactions are occurring, but are not being given accounting recognition, such as receiving or providing accounting, management or other services at no charge or a major stockholder absorbing corporate expenses.
  7. Review accounting records for large, unusual, or nonrecurring transactions or balances, paying particular attention to transactions recognized at or near the end of the reporting period.
  8. Review confirmations of compensating balance arrangements for indications that balances are or were maintained for or by related parties.
  9. Review invoices from law firms that have performed regular or special services for the company for indications of the existence of related parties or related party transactions.
  10. Review confirmations of loans receivable and payable for indications of guarantees. When guarantees are indicated, determine their nature and the relationships, if any, of the guarantors to the reporting entity.

Examining Identified Related Party Transactions

.09

[The following paragraph is effective for audits of fiscal years beginning on or after December 15, 2010. See PCAOB Release No. 2010-004. For audits of fiscal years beginning before December 15, 2010, click here.]

After identifying related party transactions, the auditor should apply the procedures he considers necessary to obtain satisfaction concerning the purpose, nature, and extent of these transactions and their effect on the financial statements. The procedures should be directed toward obtaining and evaluating sufficient appropriate evidential matter and should extend beyond inquiry of management. Procedures that should be considered include the following:

  1. Obtain an understanding of the business purpose of the transaction. fn 6
  2. Examine invoices, executed copies of agreements, contracts, and other pertinent documents, such as receiving reports and shipping documents.
  3. Determine whether the transaction has been approved by the board of directors or other appropriate officials.
  4. Test for reasonableness the compilation of amounts to be disclosed, or considered for disclosure, in the financial statements.
  5. Arrange for the audits of intercompany account balances to be performed as of concurrent dates, even if the fiscal years differ, and for the examination of specified, important, and representative related party transactions by the auditors for each of the parties, with appropriate exchange of relevant information.
  6. Inspect or confirm and obtain satisfaction concerning the transferability and value of collateral.

.10

When necessary to fully understand a particular transaction, the following procedures, which might not otherwise be deemed necessary to comply with generally accepted auditing standards, should be considered. fn 7

  1. Confirm transaction amount and terms, including guarantees and other significant data, with the other party or parties to the transaction.
  2. Inspect evidence in possession of the other party or parties to the transaction.
  3. Confirm or discuss significant information with intermediaries, such as banks, guarantors, agents, or attorneys, to obtain a better understanding of the transaction.
  4. Refer to financial publications, trade journals, credit agencies, and other information sources when there is reason to believe that unfamiliar customers, suppliers, or other business enterprises with which material amounts of business have been transacted may lack substance.
  5. With respect to material uncollected balances, guarantees, and other obligations, obtain information about the financial capability of the other party or parties to the transaction. Such information may be obtained from audited financial statements, unaudited financial statements, income tax returns, and reports issued by regulatory agencies, taxing authorities, financial publications, or credit agencies. The auditor should decide on the degree of assurance required and the extent to which available information provides such assurance.

Disclosure

.11

[The following paragraph is effective for audits of fiscal years beginning on or after December 15, 2010. See PCAOB Release No. 2010-004. For audits of fiscal years beginning before December 15, 2010, click here.]

For each material related party transaction (or aggregation of similar transactions) or common ownership or management control relationship for which FASB Statement No. 57 [AC section R36] requires disclosure, the auditor should consider whether he has obtained sufficient appropriate evidential matter to understand the relationship of the parties and, for related party transactions, the effects of the transaction on the financial statements. He should then evaluate all the information available to him concerning the related party transaction or control relationship and satisfy himself on the basis of his professional judgment that it is adequately disclosed in the financial statements. fn 8

.12

Except for routine transactions, it will generally not be possible to determine whether a particular transaction would have taken place if the parties had not been related, or assuming it would have taken place, what the terms and manner of settlement would have been. Accordingly, it is difficult to substantiate representations that a transaction was consummated on terms equivalent to those that prevail in arm's-length transactions. fn 9 If such a representation is included in the financial statements and the auditor believes that the representation is unsubstantiated by management, he should express a qualified or adverse opinion because of a departure from generally accepted accounting principles, depending on materiality (see section 508.35 and .36).

Footnotes (AU Section 334 — Related Parties):

fn * This section also withdraws the following auditing interpretations dated March 1976 (AICPA, Professional Standards, vol. 1, AU sec. 9335.01-.11):

  • Evaluating the Adequacy of Disclosure of Related Party Transactions
  • Disclosure of Commonly Controlled Parties
  • Definition of "Immediate Family"

fn 1 Financial Accounting Standards Board Statement No. 57, Related Party Disclosures, paragraphs 2 through 4 [AC section R36.102-.104], contains the disclosure requirements for related party relationships and transactions. The glossary of that Statement [AC section R36.406] defines related parties as follows:

Affiliates of the enterprise; entities for which investments are accounted for by the equity method by the enterprise; trusts for the benefit of employees, such as pension and profit-sharing trusts that are managed by or under the trusteeship of management; principal owners of the enterprise; its management; members of the immediate families of principal owners of the enterprise and its management; and other parties with which the enterprise may deal if one party controls or can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the other to an extent that one of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests. Another party also is a related party if it can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the transacting parties or if it has an ownership interest in one of the transacting parties and can significantly influence the other to an extent that one or more of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests. The glossary also gives definitions of the terms "affiliate," "control," "immediate family," "management," and "principal owners" [AC section R36.401-.405]. Paragraph 1 of the FASB Statement [AC section R36.101] gives examples of related party transactions.

fn 2 Some pronouncements specify criteria for determining, presenting, and accounting for the substance of certain transactions and events. Examples include (1) presenting consolidated financial statements instead of separate statements of the component legal entities (Accounting Research Bulletin No. 51 [AC section C51]); (2) capitalizing leases (FASB Statement No. 13 [AC section L10]); and (3) imputing an appropriate interest rate when the face amount of a note does not reasonably represent the present value of the consideration given or received in exchange for it (Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 21 [AC section I69]; FASB Statement No. 94 [AC section C51]). [Footnote revised, June 1993, to reflect conforming changes necessary due to the issuance of Statement of Position 93-3.]

fn 3 FASB Statement No. 57, paragraph 1 [AC section R36.101], gives other examples of common types of transactions with related parties, and it states that "transactions between related parties are considered to be related party transactions even though they may not be given accounting recognition."

fn 4 According to FASB Statement No. 57, paragraph 24(f) [AC section R36.406] "trusts for the benefit of employees, such as pension and profit-sharing trusts that are managed by or under the trusteeship of management," are related parties.

fn 5 Conflict-of-interests statements are intended to provide the board of directors with information about the existence or nonexistence of relationships between the reporting persons and parties with whom the company transacts business.

fn 6 Until the auditor understands the business sense of material transactions, he cannot complete his audit. If he lacks sufficient specialized knowledge to understand a particular transaction, he should consult with persons who do have the requisite knowledge.

fn 7 Arrangements for certain procedures should be made or approved in advance by appropriate client officials.

[The following footnote is effective for audits of fiscal years beginning on or after December 15, 2010. See PCAOB Release No. 2010-004. For audits of fiscal years beginning before December 15, 2010, click here.]

fn 8 The disclosure standards are contained in FASB Statement No. 57, paragraphs 2 through 4 [AC section R36.102-.104]. Also, see paragraph 31 of Auditing Standard No. 14, Evaluating Audit Results.

fn 9 FASB Statement No. 57, paragraph 3 [AC section R36.103], states that if representations are made about transactions with related parties, the representations "shall not imply that the related party transactions were consummated on terms equivalent to those that prevail in arm's-length transactions unless such representations can be substantiated."