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Auditing Standard No. 2

An Audit of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting Performed in Conjunction With an Audit of Financial Statements

APPENDIX A

Illustrative Reports on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

A1.      Paragraphs 167 through 199 of this standard provide direction on the auditor's report on management's assessment of internal control over financial reporting.  The following examples illustrate how to apply that direction in several different situations.

ILLUSTRATIVE REPORT 

Example A-1

ILLUSTRATIVE REPORT EXPRESSING AN UNQUALIFIED OPINION ON MANAGEMENT'S ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING AND AN UNQUALIFIED OPINION ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING (SEPARATE REPORT)1/

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

[ Introductory paragraph ]

We have audited management's assessment, included in the accompanying [ title of management's report ], that W Company maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 20X3, based on [ Identify control criteria, for example, "criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)." ].  W Company's management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting.  Our responsibility is to express an opinion on management's assessment and an opinion on the effectiveness of the company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.

[ Scope paragraph ]

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States).  Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.  Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, evaluating management's assessment, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances.  We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

[ Definition paragraph ]

A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.  A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

[ Inherent limitations paragraph ]

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements.  Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

[ Opinion paragraph ]

In our opinion, management's assessment that W Company maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 20X3, is fairly stated, in all material respects, based on [ Identify control criteria, for example, "criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)." ].  Also in our opinion, W Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 20X3, based on [ Identify control criteria, for example, "criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)." ].

[ Explanatory paragraph ]

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the [ identify financial statements ] of W Company and our report dated [ date of report, which should be the same as the date of the report on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting ] expressed [ include nature of opinion ].
 

[ Signature ]

[ City and State or Country ]

[ Date ]

1/ If the auditor issues separate reports on the audit of internal control over financial reporting and the audit of the financial statements, both reports should include a statement that the audit was conducted in accordance with standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States).

 

Example A-2

ILLUSTRATIVE REPORT EXPRESSING AN UNQUALIFIED OPINIONON MANAGEMENT'S ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING AND AN ADVERSE OPINIONON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING BECAUSE OF THE EXISTENCE OF A MATERIAL WEAKNESS

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

[ Introductory paragraph ]

We have audited management's assessment, included in the accompanying [ title of management's report ], that W Company did not maintain effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 20X3, because of the effect of [ material weakness identified in management's assessment ], based on [ Identify criteria, for example, "criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)." ].  W Company's management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting.  Our responsibility is to express an opinion on management's assessment and an opinion on the effectiveness of the company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.

[ Scope paragraph ]

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States).  Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.  Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, evaluating management's assessment, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances.  We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

[ Definition paragraph ]

A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.  A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

[ Inherent limitations paragraph ]

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements.  Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

[ Explanatory paragraph ]

A material weakness is a control deficiency, or combination of control deficiencies, that results in more than a remote likelihood that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected.  The following material weakness has been identified and included in management's assessment.  [ Include a description of the material weakness and its effect on the achievement of the objectives of the control criteria. ]  This material weakness was considered in determining the nature, timing, and extent of audit tests applied in our audit of the 20X3 financial statements, and this report does not affect our report dated [ date of report, which should be the same as the date of this report on internal control ] on those financial statements. 1/

[ Opinion paragraph ]

In our opinion, management's assessment that W Company did not maintain effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 20X3, is fairly stated, in all material respects, based on [ Identify control criteria, for example, "criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)." ].  Also, in our opinion, because of the effect of the material weakness described above on the achievement of the objectives of the control criteria, W Company has not maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 20X3, based on [ Identify control criteria, for example, "criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)." ].
 

[ Signature ]

[ City and State or Country ]

 [ Date ]

1/ Modify this sentence when the auditor's opinion on the financial statements is affected by the adverse opinion on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, as described in paragraph 196.

Example A-3

ILLUSTRATIVE REPORT EXPRESSING A QUALIFIED OPINIONON MANAGEMENT'S ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING AND A QUALIFIED OPINIONON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING BECAUSE OF A LIMITATION ON THE SCOPE OF THE AUDIT

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

[ Introductory paragraph ]

We have audited management's assessment, included in the accompanying [ title of management's report ], that W Company maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 20X3, based on [ Identify control criteria, for example, "criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)." ].  W Company's management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting.  Our responsibility is to express an opinion on management's assessment and an opinion on the effectiveness of the company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.

[ Scope paragraph ]

Except as described below, we conducted our audit in accordance the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States).  Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.  Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, evaluating management's assessment, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances.  We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

[ Explanatory paragraph that describes scope limitation ]

A material weakness is a control deficiency, or combination of control deficiencies, that results in more than a remote likelihood that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected.  The following material weakness has been identified and included in management's assessment. 1/  Prior to December 20, 20X3, W Company had an inadequate system for recording cash receipts, which could have prevented the Company from recording cash receipts on accounts receivable completely and properly.  Therefore, cash received could have been diverted for unauthorized use, lost, or otherwise not properly recorded to accounts receivable.  We believe this condition was a material weakness in the design or operation of the internal control of W Company in effect prior to December 20, 20X3.  Although the Company implemented a new cash receipts system on December 20, 20X3, the system has not been in operation for a sufficient period of time to enable us to obtain sufficient evidence about its operating effectiveness.

[ Definition paragraph ]

A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.  A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
 

 [ Inherent limitations paragraph ]

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements.  Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

[ Opinion paragraph ]

In our opinion, except for the effect of matters we might have discovered had we been able to examine evidence about the effectiveness of the new cash receipts system, management's assessment that W Company maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 20X3, is fairly stated, in all material respects, based on [ Identify control criteria, for example, "criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)." ].  Also, in our opinion, except for the effect of matters we might have discovered had we been able to examine evidence about the effectiveness of the new cash receipts system, W Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 20X3, based on [ Identify control criteria, for example, "criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)." ].

[ Explanatory paragraph ]

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the [ identify financial statements ] of W Company and our report dated [ date of report, which should be the same as the date of the report on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting ] expressed [ include nature of opinion ].

[ Signature ]

[ City and State or Country ]

[ Date ]

1/ If the auditor has identified a material weakness that is not included in management's assessment, add the following wording to the report:  "In addition, we have identified the following material weakness that has not been identified as a material weakness in management's assessment."

Example A-4

ILLUSTRATIVE REPORT DISCLAIMING AN OPINION ON MANAGEMENT'S ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING AND DISCLAIMING AN OPINION ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF  INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING BECAUSE OF A LIMITATION ON THE SCOPE OF THE AUDIT

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

[ Introductory paragraph ]

We were engaged to audit management's assessment included in the accompanying [ title of management's report ] that W Company maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 20X3 based on [ Identify control criteria, f or example, "criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)." ].  W Company's management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting.

[ Omit scope paragraph ]

[ Explanatory paragraph that describes scope limitation ] 1/

[ Definition paragraph ]

A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.  A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

[ Inherent limitations paragraph ]

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements.  Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

[ Opinion paragraph ]

Since management [ describe scope restrictions ] and we were unable to apply other procedures to satisfy ourselves as to the effectiveness of the company's internal control over financial reporting, the scope of our work was not sufficient to enable us to express, and we do not express, an opinion either on management's assessment or on the effectiveness of the company's internal control over financial reporting.

[ Explanatory paragraph ]

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the [ identify financial statements ] of W Company and our report dated [ date of report, which should be the same as the date of the report on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting ] expressed [ include nature of opinion ].

[ Signature ]
[ City and State or Country ]
[ Date ]

1/ If, through the limited procedures performed, the auditor concludes that a material weakness exists, the auditor should add the definition of material weakness (as provided in paragraph 10) to the explanatory paragraph.  In addition, the auditor should include a description of the material weakness and its effect on the achievement of the objectives of the control criteria .

Example A-5

ILLUSTRATIVE REPORT EXPRESSING AN UNQUALIFIED OPINIONON MANAGEMENT'S ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING THAT REFERS TO THE REPORT OF OTHER AUDITORS AS A BASIS, IN PART, FOR THE AUDITOR'S OPINION AND AN UNQUALIFIED OPINIONON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

[ Introductory paragraph ]

We have audited management's assessment, included in the accompanying [ title of management's report ], that W Company maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 20X3, based on [ Identify control criteria, for example, "criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)." ].  W Company's management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting.  Our responsibility is to express an opinion on management's assessment and an opinion on the effectiveness of the company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.  We did not examine the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting of B Company, a wholly owned subsidiary, whose financial statements reflect total assets and revenues constituting 20 and 30 percent, respectively,, of the related consolidated financial statement amounts as of and for the year ended December 31, 20X3.  The effectiveness of B Company's internal control over financial reporting was audited by other auditors whose report has been furnished to us, and our opinion, insofar as it relates to the effectiveness of B Company's internal control over financial reporting, is based solely on the report of the other auditors.

[ Scope paragraph ]

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States).  Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.  Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, evaluating management's assessment, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances.  We believe that our audit and the report of the other auditors provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

[ Definition paragraph ]

A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.  A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

[ Inherent limitations paragraph ]

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements.  Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

[ Opinion paragraph ]

In our opinion, based on our audit and the report of the other auditors, management's assessment that W Company maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 20X3, is fairly stated, in all material respects, based on [ Identify control criteria, for example, "criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)." ].  Also, in our opinion, based on our audit and the report of the other auditors, W Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 20X3, based on [ Identify control criteria, for example, "criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)." ].

[ Explanatory paragraph ]

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the [ identify financial statements ] of W Company and our report dated [ date of report, which should be the same as the date of the report on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting ] expressed [ include nature of opinion ].

[ Signature ]

[ City and State or Country ]

[ Date ]

Example A-6

ILLUSTRATIVE REPORT EXPRESSING AN ADVERSE OPINIONON MANAGEMENT'S ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING AND AN ADVERSE OPINIONON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING BECAUSE OF THE EXISTENCE OF A MATERIAL WEAKNESS

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

[ Introductory paragraph ]

We have audited management's assessment, included in the accompanying [ title of management's report ], that W Company maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 20X3, based on [ Identify control criteria, for example, "criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)." ].  W Company's management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting.  Our responsibility is to express an opinion on management's assessment and an opinion on the effectiveness of the company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.

[ Scope paragraph ]

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States).  Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.  Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, evaluating management's assessment, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances.  We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

[ Definition paragraph ]

A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.  A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

[ Inherent limitations paragraph ]

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements.  Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

[ Explanatory paragraph ]

A material weakness is a control deficiency, or combination of control deficiencies, that results in more than a remote likelihood that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected.  We have identified the following material weakness that has not been identified as a material weakness in management's assessment [ Include a description of the material weakness and its effect on the achievement of the objectives of the control criteria. ]  This material weakness was considered in determining the nature, timing, and extent of audit tests applied in our audit of the 20X3 financial statements, and this report does not affect our report dated [ date of report, which should be the same as the date of this report on internal control ] on those financial statements. 1/
[ Opinion paragraph ]

In our opinion, because of the effect of the material weakness described above on the achievement of the objectives of the control criteria, management's assessment that W Company maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 20X3, is not fairly stated, in all material respects, based on [ Identify control criteria, for example, "criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)." ].  Also, in our opinion, because of the effect of the material weakness described above on the achievement of the objectives of the control criteria, W Company has not maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 20X3, based on [ Identify control criteria, for example, "criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)." ].

[ Signature ]

[ City and State or Country ]

 [ Date ]

1/ Modify this sentence when the auditor's opinion on the financial statements is affected by the adverse opinion on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting.

Example A-7

ILLUSTRATIVE COMBINED REPORT EXPRESSING AN UNQUALIFIED OPINIONON FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, AN UNQUALIFIED OPINIONON MANAGEMENT'S ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING AND AN UNQUALIFIED OPINIONON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

[ Introductory paragraph ]

We have audited the accompanying balance sheets of W Company as of December 31, 20X3 and 20X2, and the related statements of income, stockholders' equity and comprehensive income, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 20X3.  We also have audited management's assessment, included in the accompanying [ title of management's report ], that W Company maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 20X3, based on [ Identify control criteria, for example, "criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)." ].  W Company's management is responsible for these financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting.  Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements, an opinion on management's assessment, and an opinion on the effectiveness of the company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits.

[ Scope paragraph ]

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States).  Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.  Our audit of financial statements included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation.  Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, evaluating management's assessment, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances.  We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

[ Definition paragraph ]

A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.  A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

[ Inherent limitations paragraph ]

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements.  Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
[ Opinion paragraph ]

In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of W Company as of December 31, 20X3 and 20X2, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 20X3 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.  Also in our opinion, management's assessment that W Company maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 20X3, is fairly stated, in all material respects, based on [ Identify control criteria, for example, "criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)." ].  Furthermore, in our opinion, W Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 20X3, based on [ Identify control criteria, for example, "criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)." ].

[ Signature ]

[ City and State or Country ]

[ Date ]